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It is a pitty that up to now it is not possible to harmonize existing data bases on dam failures all over the world. Real cases are often poorly documented due to a lack of eyewitnesses or information which is strictly hold back by parties that may anticipate legal troubles from such events. For the development of next-generation embankment dam breach models it is necessary to overcome personal shortcomings of some backwards and to develop a worldwide case database of high quality real-world dam failure data. The first steps are done [1] with the support of data from Risk Assessment International. Cases, like Oros, Castlewood II, Macchu II, Banqiao, etc. are documented sufficiently to be used for testing newly developed empirical breach peak outflow relations. This data base is not made to blame or criminalize but to help to highlight those areas that should receive most attention when investigating, documenting and avoiding future dam failures.

很可惜到今天为止仍然不能对全世界溃坝事故进行数据库整理。有很多案例没有记录现场,另外有些人为了避免刑事追究隐瞒或销毁了现场记录信息。为发展新一代的大坝溃决模型,必须克服人为的过失,并在全世界范围内建立详细的溃坝数据信息库。需要做的第一步[1]完善国际风险评估的数据。对向OrosCastlewood IIMacchu IIBanqiao等大坝的案例信息应详细整理,为新开发的实验室溃坝洪峰关系的验证提供数据。该数据库的整理不是为了对溃坝事故进行批评上海英语翻译,而是为了在以后的调查和信息整理过程中对事故教训引起高度关注,并避免再次溃坝事故的发生。

Lower Otay Dam was constructed in 1898 with an unusual design. It was a rockfill structure with a massive masonry pour as a base for steel plates, which were riveted together, centered in the middle of the dam body and were used as a diaphragm to control seepage. The construction had a height of 39,6 m, a crest length of 143 m and stored a volume of 49 Mm3. Heavy rainfalls in January 1916 caused torrential flows and Sweetwater Dam, a concrete arch dam was overtopped and failed partially by washing out a large section of its southern abutment. The spillway of Lower Otay Dam had insufficient capacity and the dam was completely overtopped. Water filled up the observation shafts on the downstream side of the steel core, and the pressure blew out the downstream rockfill shell that provided the structural stability. The steel core finally swung out like a gate, releasing the full depth of water, which created a flood wave in the canyon of more than 30 m height.

Lower Otay 大坝于1898年施工完成,之前对其进行了特殊设计。大坝为堆石结构,钢板底座为大块砌石砌筑,并一同铆接固定,位于大坝主体中间,相当于防水装置,可以用来控制渗流。施工高度为39,6,坝顶高为143 ,储水量为49 Mm3Sweetwater大坝是一座混凝土拱坝。1916年的1月连降大雨,导致洪水激流,Sweetwater大坝漫顶,随后大坝南侧大部分坍塌。Lower Otay大坝由于溢洪道泄洪量不足,所有完全漫顶。洪水冲到了钢芯墙下游的观望台,冲击着下游的决定大坝稳定性的堆石北京英语翻译。钢芯墙最终被冲垮,洪水狂乱奔流,峡谷处的洪峰达到30高。

 

 

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